GLOSSARY OF TERMSCRITICAL PERSPECTIVES LENSES GLOSSARY
→ the definitions come from predominantly from the Sensoy & DiAngelo. Are We Really Equal?
Themes & Lenses: CPI - Learning Community, Critical Thinking, Critical Theory, Positionality, Personal Awareness, Personal Identity, Social Markers, DIverse Populations-Other, Intersectionality, Power Privilege, & Difference, Philosophical Orientations, History of Education, School Structures, Legal Issues, Cultural Responsiveness, Civil Rights. CPII - School, Systems & Structures, Teacher Identity, Social Markers, Positionality, Intersectionality, Classroom Guidance & Management Models, Culturally Responsive Pedagogy, Multicultural Education, Critical Issues
Ecological Systems Framework
Highlights the complex interplay between the biological individual [at the centre] and the social contexts within which s/he develops. Bio refers to the notion that people bring themselves to the developmental process. Ecological refers to notion that the social contexts in which we develop are ecosystems because they are in constant interaction and influence each other. In this model the environment is comprised of nested systems - Chronosystem, Macrosystem, Exosystem, Mesosystem, and Microsystem - that reflect close interpersonal interactions with broader based influences of culture, such as roles, norms, and rules, and subsequently powerfully shape individual and organizational development.
CRITICAL THINKING & CRITICAL THEORY CHAPTER 1
Critical Thinking → an intellectual skill of analysis
→ ability to engage in multiple layers of complexity; to go below the surface when considering an issue and explore it’s multiple dimensions and nuances
→ moves beyond acquiring new information in order to determine which facts are true or false to determine the social, historical, and political meaning given to those facts.
→ ability to recognize & analyze how meaning [knowledge] is socially constructed & infused with ideology
Critical Social Justice Framework
→ knowledge does not refer exclusively to academic scholarship, but also includes the lived experiences and perspectives that marginalized group bring to bear on an issue.
→ scholarship can provide useful language with which marginalized groups can frame their experiences within the broader society p.4
Critical Theory: examination of how a society works
→ a specific scholarly approach that explores the historical, cultural and ideological lines of authority that underlie social conditions
Opinions: are often based in common sense understandings [everyone has] vs Informed Knowledge: few have without ongoing experience and study
Social Stratification: the concept that our social groups are relationally positioned and ranked into a hierarchy of unequal value [e.g. people without disabilities are seen as more valuable than people with disabilities]. This ranking is used to justify the unequal distribution of resources among social groups.
Minoritized Group: a social group that is devalued in society & given less access to resources. This devaluing encompasses how the group is represented, what degree of access to resources is granted, and how the unequal access is rationalized. Traditionally, a group in this position has been referred to as the minority group. However, this language has been replaced with the term minoritized in order to capture the active dynamics that create the lower status in society & also to signal that a group’s status is not necessarily related to how many or how few of them there are in the population at large.
Positionality: the recognition that where you stand in relation to others in society shapes what you can see and understand about the world.
Intersectionality (or intersectionalism)Term to describe the complex interactions resulting from the reality of individuals simultaneously occupying both oppressed and privileged positions. The study of intersections between forms or systems of oppression, domination or discrimination.
Microaggressions: is a form of unintended discrimination. It is depicted by the use of known social norms of behavior and/or expression that, while without conscious choice of the user, has the same effect as conscious, intended discrimination [wikipedia]. “Racial microaggressions are brief and commonplace daily verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities, whether intentional or unintentional, that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative racial slights and insults towards people of color.” Those who inflict racial microaggressions are often unaware that they have done anything to harm another person.” Source: Sue, D.W., Capodilupo, C., Torino, G, Bucceri, J., Holder, A., Nadal, K., & Equin, M. (2007). Racial Microaggressions in Everyday Life: Implications for Clinical Practice. The American Psychologist , 62 (4) 271-286.
SOCIALIZATION CHAPTER 2
Culture: the norms, values, practices, patterns of communication, language, laws, customs, and meanings shared by a group of people located in a given time and space.
Frames of Reference: understanding the big picture [macro] cultural norms and social groups we are born into, as well as the lenses, or individual [micro] perspective of who we are based on our unique experiences.
Social Identity: a person's sense of self based on the group they belong to.
Looking Glass Self: considering how we come to identify or know who we are through the process of what others reflect back to us. our imagined personal identification vs how we imagine we are identified by others.
Personal Culture: an analysis of personal culture in terms of the learner's educational profile.
What is Cultural Competence? an examination of issues related to developing cultural competence.
Race: socially constructed system of classifying humans based on phenotypical characteristics [skin colour, hair texture, bone structure].
Ethnicity: people bound by a common language, culture, spiritual traditions, and/or ancestry.
Dominant Group[s]:the group[s] at the top of the social hierarchy. In any relationship between groups that define on another [men/women, able-bodied/disabled, young/old], the dominant group is the group that is valued more highly. Dominant groups set the norms by which the minoritized group is judged. Dominant groups have greater access to the resources of society and benefit from the existence of the inequality.
Socialization: refers to our systematic training into the norms of our culture. It is the process of learning the meanings and practices that enable us to make sense of and behave appropriately in that culture.
Looking Glass Self: Cooley's ‘Looking Glass Self’ captures the idea that it is what others reflect back to us that teaches us who we are. That is, our ideas about ourselves are based on how we see ourselves [people like us] in relation to others [people not like us]. There are three components of the looking-glass self:
- First, we imagine how we must appear to others
- Next, we imagine the judgement of that appearance
- Finally we develop our self through the judgements of others
PREJUDICE & DISCRIMINATION CHAPTER 3
Prejudice: Learned prejudgement about members of social groups to which we don’t belong.
Discrimination: Action based on prejudice towards social others. When we act on our prejudgements, we are discriminating.
Stereotype: Refer to reduced or simplified characteristics attributed to a group.
“Attractiveness” often associated with dominant groups (more widely accepted).
PRIVILEGE CHAPTER 5
Privilege: not based on luck, happenstance, product of structural advantages created by dominant group to benefit dominate group.. Ex: men, able-bodied, Christians, etc.
Internal and Attitudinal effects: Internalization of messages of your group's superiority. Lack of humility that results from your limited knowledge of the minoritized groups.
External and structural: Integration of dominant group norms into the structures of society and the invisibility of privilege for the dominant group. Structures of privilege are the way things are created in order to apply to the dominant group. Maintaining a more macro perspective lense.
Power: the ideological, technical, and discursive elements by which those in authority impose their ideas and interests on everyone
Genetic deficit theory: the explanation that minoritized groups do not achieve in society because of their genetic history/genes
Cultural deficit theory: the explanation that minoritized groups do not achieve in society because they lack the appropriate cultural values
Normalcy - what can be taken for granted
Status - refers to a temporary position/job and is contextual, ie. Oprah Winfrey unable to hail a cab once she leaves her workplace
Rank - social membership ie. race, class, gender, sexual orientation
Intersectionality - the term used to refer to the reality that we occupy multiple social groups
RACISM CHAPTER 7
Racism: The system of collective and historical realities of White power and privilege in the United States
White Racial Superiority: A term that is appropriately uncomfortable, and needs to be understood in a specific academic usage for our purposes. In short, this is a term that scholars use to describe the state of culture such that white persons receive constant messages that they are better, normal, and important. Conversely, this term implies that people of color receive constant messages that they are worse, abnormal, and unimportant or invisible.
Racial Prejudice: Generalized judgements of all members of a group made from limited knowledge and/or experience with the group.
Discrimination: Actions based on prejudices.
Racism Binary: Refers to false Racist vs. not-Racist labeling which is characteristic of how whites conceptualize racism. In this false choice, whites identify stereotypes of “Old, southern, white, men” as racist and conclude that if they are not these things they are not racist. This binary is problematic for discussing collective and systemic racism that benefits the self-styled non-racist white.
Racial Binary: Refers to the racist trend of segmentation into White vs. Non-white groups, where whiteness is normal and other groups are racialized.
“People of Color”: Term used to describe people who are seen by the dominant society as having a race based on observable traits. Term is useful in recognizing the existence of racial binary under white dominance with all other groups being racialized, but problematic in that is does not recognize the unique histories and experiences of racialized groups.
Colorblindness and Post Racial Society: Both terms describe attitudes or assertions that people make to downplay the continued influence of White racial supremacy in American Culture. The logic runs, “Racism was a bad thing done by bad people before the 60’s and continues in some backwards corners today, but now it is gone and I am not racist, in fact I do not believe race matters.” The capacity to hold these opinions relies on continued white racial supremacy,
Racialization: Process of subordination non-dominant racial groups by assigning racial labels. “Whiteness,” is assumed as normal, and non-whiteness is given racial labels.
Internalized Racial Oppression: When persons of color consciously, or subconsciously, accept negative representations and/or invisibility of people of color in media and culture.
Intersectionality: Term to describe the complex interactions resulting from the reality of individuals simultaneously occupy both oppressed and privileged positions.